In only 22 (19 males and 3 females) of these, positive history of genital herpes was obtained. A high co-relation of HBsAg positive with either HIV or VDRL requires urgent attention for HBV intervention strategies in this population. In 2007, following the third National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3), United Nations Joint Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and National AIDS control organization (NACO) suggested that the national adult HIV prevalence in India is approximately 0.36%, amounting to 2 to 3.1 million people living with HIV, almost 50% of the previous estimate of 5.2 million. Vulvovaginal candidiasis was diagnosed by gram staining, potassium hydroxide (KOH) preparation, and culturing on Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA). However, due to better availability of antenatal care to majority of women, cases of congenital syphilis have declined consistently over the past two-three decades. If the full article could not be traced, the abstract was used. Like sore throats, syphilis raged across continents, in perfect democracy and in complete ferocity.

Little information is available on co-infection of gonorrhoea with other STIs. The proportions were calculated for various syndromes and disease prevalence. Primary syphilis was diagnosed in 28 (25.5%), secondary in 47 (42.7%), and latent in 35 (31.8%) cases. Supplemental, 69, 19-36. WHO estimates that 500 million new cases of one of four curable STIs (chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis and trichomoniasis) occur each year worldwide. The mean age was 30.9 years; 68.6% women were married and 57.5% were home-based FSWs. Initial house-to-house survey was carried out in 100 households in each area; these households were selected by systematic random sampling method.


1. 24 males (13.04%) presented with urethral discharge, out of which, 15 (62.5%) had nongonococcal and 9 (37.5%) gonococcal urethritis. The most prevalent infection was candidiasis, seen in 57 patients (16.2%). Twenty-five (22.7%) patients were men who have sex with men (MSM). The sensitivity of genital discharge syndrome (GDS) was high for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis (96% and 91%, respectively) while specificity was low (76% and 72%, respectively). The coinfection of HIV and STIs in circumcised and uncircumcised cases was found out. Of the 1116 patients screened for HIV antibody, 23 patients were detected sero-positive.

Trained interviewers conducted confidential interviews to assess sociodemographic and behavioural characteristics.18 Sociodemographic information from the interviews included age, sex, residence (rural vs urban), education, caste, religion, marital status, occupation and standard of living index (SLI).15 Information on risk behaviour included number of lifetime sexual partners, condom use, alcohol and tobacco use, transfusion history and same-sex activity (for men). Non-gonococcal urethritis (46 patients, 14.1%) was more common than gonococcal urethritis. vaginalis, bacterial vaginosis, vaginal candidiasis, Neisseria gonorrheoea and herpes simplex virus type-2 antibodies. This is because patients with acute gonorrhoea less frequently attend hospital clinic due to over the counter availability of highly effective antibiotics and easily accessible private practitioners. However, due to better availability of antenatal care to majority of women, cases of congenital syphilis have declined consistently over the past two-three decades. Also, the improved pharmacotherapy of many of the bacterial STIs may result in partial clearance and non-reporting of many of these infections. Of the 898 women, 391 (43.5%) were diagnosed with ≥1 endogenous reproductive tract infection and 157 (17.4%) with ≥1 sexually transmitted infection.

Genital molluscum contagiosum (MC) was found in 19 patients (10.33%), and warts in 15 (8.15%). Most common age group affected was 25 to 44 years (59.7%). Prevalence of candidiasis, dermatophytosis, herpes simplex, herpes zoster, molluscum contagiosum (MC), seborrheic dermatitis, adverse drug reaction, nail pigmentation, xerosis and diffuse hair loss differed statistically according to the clinical stages of HIV infection. A behavioral questionnaire was administered, clinical examination performed, and laboratory samples collected. Twenty-five (22.7%) patients were men who have sex with men (MSM). The National AIDS Control Project (Phase I) was the first project in India to develop a national public health program in HIV/AIDS prevention and control and was implemented between 1992 and 1999.[29] In order to assess the prevalence of HIV, it conducted anonymous unlinked surveys in commercial sex workers and STD clinics, a high risk group; and in antenatal clinics, the population at risk. There was a high prevalence of genital infection among women living in Zanjab.

Last two decades have shown an increase in the prevalence of STDs in children, though most of the data is from northern part of the country and from major hospitals. Out of the 604 patients who were screened, 90(14.90%) were seropositive for the HIV-I antibodies and none was positive for the HIV-2 antibodies. As compared to Mumbai, MSWs from Hyderabad were at higher risk for HIV possibly owing to several factors; they were older, a higher proportion were selling sex, reported higher rates of receptive anal sex and substance use, and had a higher prevalence of curable STIs. Trends were analysed using autoregressive moving average time series and mixed effects linear regression models adjusting for all available potential confounders.