IBR also facilitates superinfection of cattle by bacterial agents, resulting in cases of bronchitis and/or pneumonia that are frequently fatal if not treated [21]. This interaction facilitates specific binding of gD to one of several cellular receptors. These proteins are also important determinants of alphaherpesvirus tropism and pathogenesis, since they are responsible for the initial interactions with host cells by binding to cell surface receptors, attachment, fusion and entry into mammalian cells (18). Cross-immunoprecipitations with monoclonal antibodies to BHV-1 glycoprotein gp108 and the anti-gH peptide antiserum demonstrated that gp108 is the translation product of the gH open reading frame. Binding affinity analysis showed that soluble gB and both forms of gC and gD each had single binding kinetics with comparable dissociation constants (Ms), ranging from 1.5 X 10(-7) to 5.1 X 10(-7) M, whereas authentic gB exhibited dual binding kinetics with Kd(1) = 5.2 X 10(-7) M and Kd(2) = 4.1 X 10(-9) M. In both groups of infected calves, the clinical signs observed were consistent with typical infectious bovine rhinothracheitis (IBR), including pyrexia, apathy, anorexia, nasal and ocular mucopurulent discharges, erosions on the nasal mucosa, conjunctivitis, lachrymation, redness of nasal mucosa, dyspnoea, coughing, tracheal stridor and enlargement of retropharingeal, submandibular and cervical lymphnodes. Six heifers were vaccinated intranasally with the live bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) temperature-sensitive (ts) vaccine strain RBL106 within 3 weeks of birth.

↵* Corresponding author. To analyze the effect of the exchange of these homologous glycoproteins in PrV’s natural host, swine, 4-week-old piglets were intranasally infected with 10(6) PFU of either wild-type PrV strain Kaplan (PrV-Ka), PrV-9112C2, or PrV-9112C2R, in which the PrV gB gene was reinserted instead of the BHV-1 gB gene. This provided evidence that gI and gIV may also participate in virus attachment. Immunofluorescence staining and pulse-chase kinetic studies support the theory that gBtM, gBtMA, and gBtDAF are retained on nuclear and cellular membranes via different segments of the transmembrane region or the DAF fragment, respectively. Mettenleiter, J. The phosphorylation of BVdU was a prerequisite for its effect on glycosylation since the glycoproteins of a thymidine kinase-deficient mutant of BHV-1 were not affected. It is concluded that cattle can be seronegative against BHV1 gB and gE but can still carry BHV1 in a latent form.

Expression of glycoprotein D (gD) of alphaherpesviruses protects cells from superinfection by homologous and heterologous viruses by a mechanism termed interference. However, the pBISIA88-tgD-vaccinated group showed a significantly lower IgG1:IgG2 ratio than calves immunized with pBISIA4O-tgD or pMASIA-tgD, which has no CpG motifs inserted. An antigenically distinct precursor to each of the four BHV-1 glycoproteins or glycoprotein complexes was identified by monoclonal antibodies. An antigenically distinct precursor to each of the four BHV-1 glycoproteins or glycoprotein complexes was identified by monoclonal antibodies. This analysis showed that the BHV-1 gE/gI complex can be formed in insect cells after a co-infection with baculoviruses expressing gE and gI in their full length form. Only the larger of the pair was present in virions. Immunization of cattle with recombinant viruses VAC-I and VAC-III resulted in the induction of neutralizing antibodies to BHV-1, which were reactive with authentic gI and gIII.

These results, as well as the ratio of their apparent molecular weights, indicated that the GVP 6/11a/16 complex consists of two forms: one in which GVP 6 (130K) is uncleaved and the other one in which GVP 6 is cleaved and composed of GVP 11a (74K) and GVP 16 (55K), linked by disulfide bridges. An assessment of competition between gB, gC, and gD for cell binding revealed that gC was able to inhibit gB binding, whereas other combinations showed no effect. An assessment of competition between gB, gC, and gD for cell binding revealed that gC was able to inhibit gB binding, whereas other combinations showed no effect. Additionally, cellular immunity was measured by an increased level of IFN-gamma mRNA detected in PBMC of cattle immunized with the gD gene or with the commercial vaccine, whereas augmented levels of IL-4 were not detected following vaccination. van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, L. We corrected a frameshift error in the published sequence and used the corrected sequence to design coterminal peptides from the C terminus. The expression of the 3 glycoproteins at the surface of the infected cells was confirmed by the use of monoclonal antibodies having neutralizing activity, but not by non-neutralizing antibodies against gp 117 and gp 71.

The recombinant and wildtype viruses were characterized on MDBK cells. The recombinant proteins retained their antigenic properties as determined by immunoblotting against monoclonal antibodies. We have compared the subcellular localizations of gE and gG and examined the cell-to-cell adherence of bovine kidney (MDBK) cells infected with BHV-1 mutants lacking gE or gG. Serum and milk samples were collected at the same time from cattle in BHV1-free herds, cattle in unvaccinated herds, and cattle in herds that were vaccinated twice with a BHV1 marker vaccine.