M. Thereafter, there was an increase in the percentage of eyes with infectious virus and a concomitant increase in viral titers. To more fully evaluate latency after direct ganglion inoculation, a transplant model was developed. Ultracentrifugal inoculation of cultures may permit the isolation of HSV in situations where virus cannot be detected by ordinary means and may prove applicable to the study of other viruses. By 21 DPI, testes became atrophic and most Sertoli cells were destroyed. Herpes reactions on chick membranes tend to decrease after the 3rd day of incubation. Similarly, ultracentrifugal inoculation of cultures was almost 100-fold more sensitive a method of detecting infectious HSV than was pelleting HSV from dilute suspensions followed by resuspension and inoculation of cultures.
A robust signal for the TK gene and its encoding protein was detected selectively within the regions that exhibited expression of the immune molecules. In the double KO mice, there was also no disease and no detectable expression of viral antigens even in non-parenchymal cells, indicating that infection of these cells in the nectin-1 KO mice was dependent on the expression of HVEM. More than 50% of these persistently infected mice, when killed 18 to 31 days postinoculation, had gastric ulcers that were identified grossly and histologically. Note: In calculating the moving wall, the current year is not counted. However, when therapy was delayed for 3 days, it appeared that the highest drug level (320 mg/kg twice daily) was somewhat less effective than the lower doses (160 and 80 mg/kg twice daily). The soft-tissue tumours differed markedly from the structure of the soft-tissue sarcomas induced in Syrian hamsters by viruses of the papova and polyoma groups. The great difference in the numbers of infectious centers between 4 and 37 degrees C control cultures, in contrast to the similarity between 4 and 37 degrees C ultracentrifuged cultures, indicated that ultracentrifugation at 4 degrees C enhanced infectivity possibly by facilitation of herpes simplex virus penetration into monolayer cells.
Note: In calculating the moving wall, the current year is not counted. Furthermore, it may be used to distinguish those neurons with intrinsic viral synthesis from those harboring virus synthesized at a distant site with subsequent intracellular spread. Since virus spreads from the ipsilateral suprachiasmatic nucleus to the contralateral optic nerve, these results suggest that T cells infiltrating the area of the contralateral suprachiasmatic nucleus prior to the arrival of virus at this site prevent virus spread into the optic nerve of the inoculated eye. In vitro inoculation of PC with HSV similarly caused a reduction in the ability of PC to mediate ADCC to HSV-infected target cells. RESULTS: In mock-depleted mice, NK activity in the spleens, superficial cervical and submandibular lymph nodes, and inoculated eyes peaked at postinoculation (pi) day 5 and declined by pi day 7. He showed that this virus is an infection caused by human inoculation. When polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used, the virus was detected in several organs (including the nervous tissues) that were found negative by other techniques.
After mixed TK(-)-TK+ HSV infection and subsequent cultivation of ganglion explants in arabinosylthymine, results supported the conclusion that when TK- was present in ganglia it was in the same neurons that contained TK+ HSV. When Balb/c mice are either dark-reared or dark-adapted prior to AC injection of HSV-1, contralateral retinitis is abolished. Eighty per cent of brain tumor-bearing mice were completely cured by our treatment protocol using concentrated HTK-harboring retroviruses. The reactivity of delayed type sensitivity in group (A) was lower than in group (B). A limited role of the circulatory system in the colonization of sensory ganglia by HSV cannot be excluded, since in a few cases virus was detected in ganglia after sectioning of both the sciatic and the femoral nerve. The cribriform structure of the internal orifice of the cochlear aqueduct appeared to be completely obstructed, whereas it was normal in the presence of bacterial infection as previously reported (1). Results of previous experiments in which only the sectioning of the sciatic nerve was able to prevent the invasion of ganglia, are difficult to explain.
Re-infection caused no detectable reactivation of the latent PFA resistant virus. Transfer of immune serum lengthened the survival time but resulted in bilateral necrotizing retinitis. The difference between the peaks of CTL activity after inoculation via each route was not significant. This raises the possibility that latency is dependent on this particular means of presenting HSV to ganglion neurons. Although most of the animals developed clinical manifestations of meningoencephalitis within a few days after inoculation, Preyer’s reflex remained intact. The SKO-1B strain showed high rate of virus reactivation from explanted trigeminal ganglia without n-butyrate enhancement, while the other two strains showed a very low rate of virus reactivation in the absence of n-butyrate. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is commonly encountered first during childhood as an oral infection.