Richman, and G. Routh, M. 1. DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis.The correct-sized PCR products were purified after agarose gel electrophoresis with a Qiagen II gel extraction kit (Qiagen, Valencia, CA, USA). The faecal glucocorticoid results are difficult to interpret without previously defined baseline levels, but no clear patterns emerged between faecal glucocorticoid levels and EEHV-1 shedding. Clinical signs: Usually the elephant exhibits no strong symptoms, but it might show the following signs. EEHV3 and EEHV4 form a distinctive GC-rich branch of the probosciviruses.The only previous DNA sequence data available for the single known examples each of EEHV3 and EEHV4 (3, 4) was for small highly conserved U60(TERex3, 316-bp) and U38(POL, 480-bp) PCR fragments.

Phylogenetically, the EEHV form two main clusters, one harboring two closely related pairs of viruses with relatively AT-rich genomes, and another cluster harboring EEHV3 and EEHV4, which have GC-rich genomes (Fig. Most revealed edema and tongue cyanosis as well as typical hemorrhagic features in the heart and liver consistent with those described previously in young captive Asian elephants that had died suddenly of EEHV disease (Richman et al., 2000). Elephant keepers maintained records of the animal’s behaviour; events recorded included submissive behaviour, aggressive behaviour, management changes, foot care and medical observations. (24) to include an E-series numbering system for all novel Proboscivirus-specific proteins. Thank you for visiting our web site. Acute phase proteins: from research laboratory to clinic. Trunk washes were collected by having the elephant draw up 50 ml of saline into its trunk, the trunk was then elevated for 30 seconds, and the elephant then forcefully expelled the saline into a plastic freezer bag.

MedImmune was relatively small when Richman arrived in 2002. These sentient beings are high maintenance and I reserve the utmost respect for them and their caretakers. Chromatographic and extraction conditions were slightly modified from those described in another study.13 Analytic standards of famciclovirb and penciclovirb were purchased. 166-167. EEHV1 genomes can be further subdivided and classified not just into the EEHV1A and EEHV1B sub-species, but also into multiple clusters of evolutionarily and epidemiologically distinctive strains and genotypes (or gene subtypes). Richard, S. EEHV1 is currently formally recognized as the species Elephantid herpesvirus 1, the type species in the Proboscivirus genus within the Betaherpesvirinae.

is a world leader in the care and conservation of the endangered Asian elephant. A former molecular biologist, she earned her PhD from the University of Pennsylvania but realized that writing about science was a more fulfilling way to apply her knowledge and passion for the field. Communication is vital to elephants, who rely on a social network for survival. “Ask Brianna” is a Q&A column from NerdWallet for 20-somethings or anyone else starting out. Independent PCR and DNA analysis at both Princeton University and Johns Hopkins School of Medicine showed that all five juvenile wild Kenyan elephants, and the dead elephant, were infected with at least one type of EEHV. Then the fairy tale darkened. Phylogenetic analyses showed 100% homology with other EEHV-1A strains identified in Asia, Europe, and North America.

09/06 Euthanized. Mike was born at the center June 2013. This strain was similar to the one that caused illness in Chandra, Malee’s and Achara’s aunt, when she was a calf. Monitoring three Asian elephant herds from European zoos revealed that the serostatus of elephants within a herd varied from non-detectable to high titers. Female African elephants have a median life expectancy of about 37 years; male life expectancy is not known. Mac, a five-month old Asian elephant calf, plays “Mac Ball” with an oversized basketball in March 2007. This is the tragic but typical progression of EEHV, or Elephant Endotheliotropic Herpesviruses – the leading cause of reproductive failure, abortion, and neonatal and juvenile mortality in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

Despite growing knowledge of the different EEHV types, the prevalence of each type within African and Asian elephants remains to be determined and there is considerable need for diagnostic tests to detect and discriminate between each EEHV species for clinical management of African and Asian elephants that develop illness from one or more of these viruses. A second treatment was administered at about 1 a.m. Importantly, these models can be used to understand elephant population dynamics, enabling wildlife managers to predict population growth, to assess elephant habitat use to vegetation changes (e.g. Elephant herpesvirus, a disease that leads to internal bleeding that can overwhelm the heart, has been responsible for the deaths of nearly a dozen young elephants in North American zoos over the past 20 years. People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) recently protested the 2015 paper, which found that higher levels of a tumor suppressor gene could explain why elephants have a lower risk of cancer. The carcass of the two-year-old male elephant was spotted at Chinnadi forest under the Begur range of the North Wayanad Forest Division.